Mikrobiol. Z. 2022; 84(6):26-37.
Realization of Nodulation and Nitrogen-Fixing Activities of Bradyrhizobium japonicum
and Rhizosphere Microbiota through Seed Treatment with Pesticide Standak Top
and Spraying Plants with Soybean Seed Lectin
O.V. Kyrychenko, S.V. Omelchuk, A.V. Khrapova
Institute of Plant Physiology and Genetics, NAS of Ukraine
31/17 Vasylkivska Str., Kyiv, 03022, Ukraine
The idea of the study was to use soybean lectin as a biologically active compound with a broad spectrum of action to spray soybean plants for stabilization of the formation and functioning of the soybean-rhizobium symbiosis as well as the nitrogen-fixing activity of rhizosphere microbiota against the background of seed treatment with chemical plant protection product Standak Top — an innovative pesticide with fungicidal and insecticidal activity for the control of major diseases and pests of soybean plants. Aim. To study the peculiarities of formation and functioning of soybean-rhizobium symbiosis as well as the nitrogen-fixing activity of rhizosphere microbiota under spraying plants with specific soybean seed lectin on the background of seed treatment with Standak Top and inoculation with nodule bacteria Bradyrhizobium japonicum 634b on the sowing day in the conditions of pot experiments with soil as a substrate. Methods. Physiological, microbiological, gas chromatography, and statistical methods were used. Results. It was shown that after seed treatment with Standak Top (1.5 L/ton of seeds) on the sowing day, there was observed suppression of the process of nodule formation on the roots in the period of soybean vegetative growth. The nitrogen-fixing activity of the symbiotic system was at the control level, while the functional activity of soil diazotrophs was suppressed (by 1.2—2.2 times). Spraying plants in the phase of two trifoliate leaves (V2) with soybean seed lectin (without pesticide) led to an increase in the total mass of nodules on the plant (by 1.5 and 1.9 times as well as by 2.3 and 2.0 times compared to the control of inoculation in the phase of three trifoliate leaves (V3) and beginning of pod formation (R3), respectively). The increase in the total mass of the symbiotic apparatus on soybean roots in the phases V3 and R3 respectively was by 1.4 and 1.5 times in comparison with seed treatment with Standak Top, and the mass of one nodule was higher by 1.3 and 1.6 times, respectively. Soybean seed lectin led to a signifi cant increase in the actual nitrogenase activity of the soybean-rhizobium symbiosis. It was 2.9 and 1.9 times higher compared to control of inoculation and 2.1 and 1.8 times compared to the variant of inoculation + pesticide in the V3 and R3 phases, respectively. The functional activity of soil nitrogen-fixing microorganisms did not change significantly. The use of soybean seed lectin against the background of the seed treatment with Standak Top and inoculation contributed to the stabilization and increase in the rhizobia nodulation ability, the suppression of which was due to the infl uence of such an anthropogenic factor as pesticides. Th ere was observed an increase in the number (by 1.6 and 1.2 times) and mass of root nodules (by 2.2 and 1.5 times and 1.4 and 1.2 times, respectively, compared to the controls of inoculation and inoculation + pesticide). Soybean seed lectin significantly increased the nitrogenase activity of the symbiosis against the background of Standak Top (by 1.9 and 1.6 times and 1.4 and 1.5 times, respectively, in the V3 and R3 phases of soybean ontogenesis) compared to the control of inoculation and inoculation + Standak Top. Conclusions. The obtained results suggest the possibility of using the method of spraying plants with specific lectin as a means of leveling (or mitigating) the negative effect of pesticides used for the seed treatment on the formation and functioning of the symbiosis and rhizosphere diazotrophic microbiota. This indicates the prospects of studying the biological activity of phytolectins in spraying plants in order to regulate the formation and functioning of phytobacterial systems, as well as their responses to various environmental or anthropogenic stress factors, in particular, to the effect of chemical plant-protecting products used for the seed treatment.
Keywords: soybean-rhizobium symbiosis, Standak Top, soybean seed lectin, nodulation, nitrogenase activity, rhizosphere diazotrophs.
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