Mikrobiol. Z. 2019; 81(6):83-96. Ukrainian.
Antigenic and Pathogenic Properties of the Teschovirus A and Sapelovirus A Strains,
Isolated from Pigs and Synanthropic Animals in Ukraine
Institute of Agricultural Microbiology and Agroindustrial Production, NAAS of Ukraine
97 Shevchenko Str., Chernihiv, 14027, Ukraine
Recently, Teschen disease is rarely registered; however, mild or asymptomatic infections caused by Teschovirus A have been found worldwide. Aim. The aim was to study antigenic and pathogenic properties of Teschovirus A and Sapelovirus A strains, which are circulating among both porcine population and synanthropic animals in Ukraine. Methods. Biological, physicochemical and antigenic properties of viruses were studied in continuous SKECL (swine kidney embryo cell line) and ВНК-21 cell cultures. Serums that were hyperimmune against virus strains were obtained from rabbits using a scheme that was modified by us. The affiliation of viruses to the orders was established by the reaction of neutralization, affiliation on the level of species – by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Pathogenic properties of virus strains were studied on two-months-aged piglets using intracerebral infection. Results. 233 isolates of viruses were obtained from 1051 samples of materials taken from pigs and synanthropic animals. It was found that isolates of viruses, which were obtained from synanthropic animals, have biological, physicochemical and antigenic properties that are common for a causative agent of Teschen disease. Viruses that were isolated from cats, chickens and wild geese were shown to be pathogenic for pigs. Non-pathogenic T3 and Ч 878 strains of new Teschovirus A serotypes were isolated from pigs, as well as Ч 881 strain, which was reclassified as new genotype of Sapelovirus A, and also Г 31 and Д 32 strains of previously known serotypes, which can cause encephalomyelitis in pigs. A dependence of immunogenic properties of the virus strains on the sources of isolation was established. Viruses that are isolated from rectal and nasal washings were more immunogenic than viruses isolated from central nervous system. Conclusions. Virus strains, which were isolated from synanthropic animals, have biological, physicochemical and antigenic properties of the causative agent of Teschen disease. Virus strains which were isolated from cats, chickens and wild geese are pathogenic for pigs. Thereby, synanthropic animals and poultry can serve as a source of infection and an agent of the pathogen’s distribution. Strains of the Teschovirus A of the known serotypes are circulating among porcine population, which are generally not pathogenic for pigs, and also non-pathogenic strains of known Teschovirus A serotypes and new Sapelovirus A genotype were found. Viruses that are isolated from rectal and nasal washings were found to be more immunogenic, than those isolated from central nervous system. According to the results of the study, T3 and Ч 878 strains of new Teschovirus A serotypes can be recommended to the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses as reference strains.
Keywords: Teschovirus A, Sapelovirus A, virus strains, antigenic properties, immunogenic properties, pathogenic properties.
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