Mikrobiol. Z. 2017; 79(1):34-45.
doi: https://doi.org/10.15407/microbiolj79.01.034

The Relationship between Viruses and Plant Cells in Natural Ecosystems
and Some Approaches to Their Regulation

Kovalenko O.G., Shcherbatenko I.S., Kyrychenko A.M., Vasylev V.N.

Zabolotny Institute of Microbiology and Virology, NAS of Ukraine
154 Akad. Zabolotny Str., Kyiv, 03143, Ukraine

Viral diseases of plants cause considerable economic losses by lowering the harvest and deteriorating the production quality. To reduce the harm caused by viruses and to prevent their spreading, protective measures should be developed, including those that apply resistance genes, resistance inducers, and viral infection inhibitors.
The purpose of this article is to provide an up-to-date information on plant virology, mainly concerning virus-plant interactions and covering topics on biological and molecular characteristics of the most pathogenic viruses, viral host range, disease symptoms, and various antiviral defense strategies of host plants. We also attempted to highlight general characteristics and diagnostic methods for some plant viruses and to elucidate the virus-host interaction at the molecular level.
Economically important viruses, such as Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV), Beet necrotic yellow vein virus, Beet yellows virus, and Hosta virus X were investigated. Their genome sequences showed maximum identity with BYMV strains reported from Russia, Australia, and Argentina. The sequence data was submitted to NCBI, accession numbers: KT923790.1 for the soybean isolate and KT923791.1 for the bean isolate of BYMV. Using computational analysis, we frst show that subgenomic tobamovirus promoters contain 9-nucleotide motives similar to those of the pol III promoter in tRNA genes. The results obtained suggest an existence of similar transcription initiation signals in promoters of viruses and eukaryotes. Glycans, obtained from Basidiomycota mushrooms, can inhibit viral infections and activate non-specifc defense mechanisms in host plants at the gene or conformation levels. Some of them adsorb of virions, and thus an interaction between a virus and a cell is, probably, blocked resulting blocking of infection in general.
The study aims to promote economic and socially acceptable ways of protecting plants from viral diseases, as well as to improve the applicability of research in plant virus ecology for prediction and control of plant virus outbreaks.

Key words: plant viruses, biosensors, plant resistance inducers, conservative nucleotide sites, amplifcation, sequencing, phylogenetic analysis.

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