Mikrobiol. Z. 2021; 83(1):87-100.
The Conception of Microbial Preparations Development for a Crop Production
K. Davranov1, V. Shurigin2, S. Samadiy2, B. Djalolova2
1Institute of Microbiology, AS of the Republic of Uzbekistan
4 Navoiy Str., Tashkent, 100128, Uzbekistan
2National University of Uzbekistan
4 University Str., Tashkent, 100174, Uzbekistan
As a result of the analysis of scientific literature data and based on our experimental data, we present the conception of mutual relations between beneficial microorganisms and plants in the soil: a) for the purposeful management of processes in agro- and natural phytocenoses it is necessary to consider all components of the plant-microbial community (plant, arbuscular mycorrhizas, nodule bacteria and all microorganisms stimulating plants growth and development, both endophytic and epiphytic), as a uniform gen-metabolic net; b) it is necessary to consider, that the rate of microsymbionts genomes evolution exceeds the rate of plant evolution and consequently the plant should be considered as the most genetically stable in time, key component controlling the efficiency of plant-microbial systems functioning. According to the basic conception of intensive agriculture within several decades all over the world, the selection of new breeds of agricultural plants was conducted on a high agrotechnical level with the application of high doses of fertilizers and chemicals. The attention was paid only to the negative influence of a pathogenic microbiota on plants and according to this, the resistance of plants to such conditions. As a rare example, in the case of legumes farmers took into account the symbiotic nitrogen fixation that is mutualistic interactions of plants with nodule bacteria. It is necessary to notice, that the genetic systems of legumes controlled the interaction with nodule bacteria, arbuscular mycorrhiza and plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB), have a series of common genes. It should be considered as a uniform polygene net and to be the object of selection on integral feature “efficiency of interaction with microorganisms beneficial to plants”, instead on separate signs characterizing the efficiency of formation of separate types of mutually advantageous plant-microbial symbioses; c) at the beginning of plant selection history, not having the effective technologies and knowledge about the structure of plant genetic system, monitoring mutual relations of plants with microorganisms, scientists breeders intuitively followed the laws dictated by natureconducted selection against an undisturbed structure of plant beneficial microorganisms community on the integral feature of plant productivity. Today it is necessary to return to the initial practice of selection, but with the account of effective technologies and new knowledge of plant-microbial interactions and to make plant selection to increase the symbiotic potential of such interaction against its maximum genetic diversity. It is reasonable to conduct plant selection on such features as additional biomass, saved up by the formation of the mutualistic plant-microbial system and quality of received production. Due to such selection, the commercial breeds of agricultural plants maximum efficiently operating the interaction with microorganisms in agrophytocenosis will be received. As a result of applying this conception, the technologies for production of complex microbial preparations BIST, Pseudorizobin and Zamin were developed, patented and successfully tested in the Republic of Uzbekistan.
Keywords: microbial preparations, crop production, biodiversity, agrophytocenosis.
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