Mikrobiol. Z. 2021; 83(1):49-57.
Bactericidal and Fungicidal Activity of Polyetherguanidinium Chloride
M.Ya. Vortman1, Yu.B. Pysmenna2, A.I. Chuenko2, A.V. Rudenko3, V.V. Tretyak3,
V.N. Lemeshko1, V.V. Shevchenko1
1Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, NAS of Ukraine
48 Kharkovske Highway, Kyiv, 02160, Ukraine
2Zabolotny Institute of Microbiology and Virology, NAS of Ukraine
154 Akad. Zabolotny Str., Kyiv, 03143, Ukraine
3Institute of Urology, NAMS of Ukraine
9A Vinnichenka Str., Kyiv, 04053, Ukraine
There is information in the literature about the salts of polyhexamethylene guanidine (PGMG), which are effective biocidal and sterilizing drugs and disinfectants due to the wide range of their antimicrobial activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria (including Mycobacterium tuberculosis), viruses, and fungi. The aim of this work is to study the bactericidal and fungicidal activity of the synthesized polyetherguanidinium chloride against a number of bacteria and microscopic fungi. Methods. Cultivation of microorganisms. Bacteria were grown on meat-peptone agar for 48 hours at a temperature of 28±2°C. Test cultures of micromycetes were cultured on beer wort agar (6°B), incubated for 14 days in a thermostat at a temperature of 28±2°C. Antimicrobial activity of newly synthesized polyetherguanidinium chloride was determined by standard disco-diffusion method, and fungicidal activity was determined by agar diffusion method. Results. The synthesis of polyetherguanidinium chloride was carried out in two stages. The first stage was the synthesis of a guanidinium-containing oligoether with terminal guanidine moieties by the reaction between an aromatic oligoepoxide and guanidine. The second stage was the synthesis of polyetherguanidinium chloride by the reaction between a guanidinium-containing oligoether with terminal guanidine moieties and oligooxyethylenediamine. The bactericidal and fungicidal activity of polyetherguanidinium chloride against various heterotrophic bacteria and microscopic fungi has been shown. It was found that polyetherguanidinium chloride at concentrations of 1–3% inhibited the growth of gram-negative (Escherichia coli 475, Klebsiella pneumonia 479) and gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus 451) bacteria. The proposed 1% solution of polyetherguanidinium chloride shows a 1.5 times higher antimicrobial activity than the polymeric disinfectant polyhexamethyleneguanidinium chloride for E. coli 475 and K. pneumoniae 479 bacteria and lower antimicrobial activity for S. aureus 451 bacteria. According to the obtained data, it was noted that polyetherguanidinium chloride at a concentration of 1% had a high fungicidal activity against almost all investigated isolates: Aspergillus versicolor F-41250, Acremoneum humicola F-41252, Acremoneum roseum F-41251, Cladosporium sphaerospermum F-41255, Paecilomyces lilacinus F-41256 and Scopulariopsis candida F-41257. Conclusions. Received polyetherguanidinium chloride at a concentration of 1% showed bactericidal activity against S. aureus 451, E. coli 475, K. pneumoniae 479 and fungicidal effect to all fungi studied by us, and so can be used as a disinfectant for building materials.
Keywords: polyetherguanidinium chloride, bactericidal activity, bacteria, microscopic fungi, fungicides, guanidine.
Full text (PDF, in English)
- Gembitsky PA, Vointseva II. [Polymeric biocide drug polyhexamethylene guanidine]. Zaporozhye: Polygraph; 1998. Russian.
- Vointseva II, Gembitsky PA. [Polyguanidines – disinfectants and multifunctional additives in composite materials]. Moscow: LKMpress; 2009. Russian.
- Gembitsky PA. [Guanidine]. Chemical encyclopedia in 5 volumes. Moscow: Soviet encyclopedia; 1988. Russian.
- Vointseva II. [Polyhexamethylene guanidine hydrochloride for the purification and disinfection as an alternative to oxidizing agents]. Part 1. Water: Chemistry and Ecology. 2011; 7:39–45. Russian.
- Gembitsky PA, Koryavov YI, Erusalimsky PM, et all. [On the synthesis of poly (alkylene guanidines) and poly (alkylene biguanides)]. J Appl Chem. 1975; 48:1933–8. Russian.
- Jung HN, Zerin T, Podder B, Song HY, Kim YS. Cytotoxicity and gene expression profiling of polyhexamethylene guanidine hydrochloride in human alveolar A549 cells. Toxicol in vitro. 2014; 28:682–92. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tiv.2014.02.004
- Kitamaki R, Shirai K, Sugino K. Preparation and Properties of Polyhexamethyleneguanidine. Bull Chem Soc Japan. 1968; 41:1461–3. https://doi.org/10.1246/bcsj.41.1461
- Stelmakh SA. [Hydrogels based on polyhexamethylene guanidine hydrochloride]. Bulletin of the Buryat State University. Chemistry, physics 2010; B3:80–2. Russian.
- Oulè MK, Azinwi R, Bernier AM, Kablan T, Maupertuis AM, Mauler S, Koffi-Nevry R, Dembèlè K, Forbes L, Diop L. Polyhexamethylene guanidine hydrochloride-based disinfectant: a novel tool to fight meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and nosocomial infections. J Med Microbiol. 2008; 57:1523–8. https://doi.org/10.1099/jmm.0.2008/003350-0
- Kim JY, Kim HH, Cho KH. Acute cardiovascular toxicity of sterilizers, PHMG and PGH: severe inflammation in human cells and heart failure in zebrafish. Cardiovasc Toxicol. 2013; 13:148–60. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12012-012-9193-8
- Chuenko AI, Vortman MYa, Shevchenko VV. [Fungicidal activity of guanidine derivatives promising for use in the rubber industry]. Microbiology and Biotechnology. 2013; 22(2):97–106. Ukrainian. https://doi.org/10.18524/2307-4663.2013.2(22).48927
- Svetlov DA, Erofeev VT, Morozov EA. [Polyhexamethylene guanidine derivatives biocidal preparations. Biological damage and bio-corrosion in construction]. Materials of the Second International Scientific and Technical Conference. 2006:270–3. Russian.