Mikrobiol. Z. 2021; 83(1):32-38.
Symbiotic Properties of Sinorhizobium meliloti and Ethylene Production by Alfalfa Plants
at the Early Stages of the Symbiosis Formation under Different Water Supply
and Seed Treatment by Lectin
L.M. Mykhalkiv, S.Ya. Kots, A.V. Zhemojda, T.A. Kots
Institute of Plant Physiology and Genetics, NAS of Ukraine
31/17 Vasylkivska Str., Kyiv, 03022, Ukraine
The symbiotic properties of bacteria significantly influence on the effectiveness of symbiosis and the yield capacity of plants. Therefore, it is important and relevant to study the features of micro- and macrosymbionts interactions, in particular under stressful conditions, and to find ways to improve the productivity of symbiotic systems. Aim. The investigation of the nodulation and nitrogen-fixing activities of Sinorhizobium meliloti as well as the ethylene production by alfalfa plants at the early stages of the formation of symbiotic system under conditions of both optimal and insufficient water supply and the pre-sowing treatment of seeds by lectin. Methods. Microbiological (cultivation of bacteria culture, seed inoculation), physiological (pot experiment), biochemical (nitrogenase activity and ethylene production determination). Results. It was observed a decrease of the nodulation activity of Sinorhizobium meliloti under drought as well as under lectin application, which was accompanied by an increase in the amount of produced by macrosymbiont ethylene at the early stages of the symbiosis formation. At the same time, the nitrogen fixing activity was inhibited at the insufficient water supply only. The use of lectin promoted the symbiotic apparatus functioning under optimal and insufficient water supply. After renewal of irrigation an increase of the nodule weight and nitrogen fixing activity as well as the aboveground mass of alfalfa plants were noted under lectin treatment. Conclusions. It was identified the role of ethylene as a negative regulator of the nodulation processes at pre-sowing treatment of alfalfa seeds with lectin. The formation of the effective nitrogen-fixing system capable of full recovery after drought under lectin application confirms the prospects for further research in the use of lectins to create optimal conditions for the realization of the symbiotic potential of rhizobia and to increase the symbiotic systemˊ resistance to the action of stress factors.
Keywords: Symbiosis, rhizobia, alfalfa, nodulation activity, nitrogen fixation, ethylene production, lectin, water supply.
Full text (PDF, in English)
- Berrabah F, Balliau T, Aït-Salem EH, et al. Control of the ethylene signaling pathway prevents plant defenses during intracellular accommodation of the rhizobia. New Phytol. 2018; 219(1):310–23. https://doi.org/10.1111/nph.15142
- Guinel FC. Ethylene, a hormone at the center-stage of nodulation. Front Plant Sci. 2015; 6:1121. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2015.01121
- Larrainzar E, Riely BK, Kim SC, et al. Deep sequencing of the Medicago truncatula root transcriptome reveals a massive and early interaction between nodulation factor and ethylene signals. Plant Physiol. 2015; 169:233–65. https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.15.00350
- Tsyganova AV, Tsyganov VE. [Negative hormonal regulation of symbiotic nodule development. I. Ethylene (review)]. Sel’skokhozyaistvennaya biologiya. 2015; 50(3):267‒77. Russian. https://doi.org/10.15389/agrobiology.2015.3.267eng
- Penmetsa RV, Uribe P, Anderson J, et al. The Medicago truncatula ortholog of Arabidopsis EIN2, sickle, is a negative regulator of symbiotic and pathogenic microbial associations. Plant J. 2008; 55(4):580–95. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-313X.2008.03531.x
- Chan PK, Biswas B, Gresshoff PM. Classical ethylene insensitive mutants of the Arabidopsis EIN2 orthologue lack the expected ‘hypernodulation’ response in Lotus japonicus. J Integr Plant Biol. 2013; 55(4):395–408. https://doi.org/10.1111/jipb.12040
- Miyata K, Kawaguchi M, Nakagawa T. Two distinct EIN2 genes cooperatively regulate ethylene signaling in Lotus japonicus. Plant Cell Physiol. 2013; 54(9):1469–77. https://doi.org/10.1093/pcp/pct095
- Larrainzar E, Molenaar JA, Wiencoop S, et al. Drought stress provokes the down-regulation of methionine and ethylene biosynthesis pathways in Medicago truncatula roots and nodules. Plant Cell Environ. 2014; 37(9):2051–63. https://doi.org/10.1111/pce.12285
- Abeles F, Morgan P, Saltveit M. Ethylene in plant biology, 2nd ed. New York: Academic Press; 1992.
- Nascimento FX, Tavares MJ, Rossi MJ, Glick BR. The modulation of leguminous plant ethylene levels by symbiotic rhizobia played a role in the evolution of the nodulation process. Heliyon. 2018; 4(12):e01068. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2018.e01068
- Veselovska LI, Mykhalkiv LM, Kots SYa. [The influence of exogenous lectin on the effectivity of Glycine max‒Bradyrhizobium japonicum symbiosis under drought conditions]. Fiziol rast genet. 2013; 45(4):319‒26. Ukrainian.
- Kots SYa, Mykhalkiv LM, Mamenko PM, Volkogon MV. The study of alfalfa − Sinorhizobium meliloti symbiosis productivity under different water conditions and the influence of the legume seed lectin. J Agric Sci Technol. B 1. 2011; 3:454−457.
- Kyrychenko OV. [Biological activity of exogenous lectins at forming and functioning of phytobacterial associations]. Visnyk HNAU. Seriya Biologiya. 2011; 2(23):46‒59. Ukrainian.
- Oldroyd GED, Engstrom EM, Long ShR. Ethylene inhibits the Nod factor signal transduction pathway of Medicago truncatula. Plant Cell. 2001; 13:1835–49. https://doi.org/10.1105/TPC.010193
- Glick B, Penrose D, Li J. A model for the lowering of plant ethylene concentrations by plant growth-promoting bacteria. J Theor Biol. 1998; 190(1):63–8. https://doi.org/10.1006/jtbi.1997.0532
- Sugawara M, Okazaki S, Nukui N, et al. Rhizobitoxine modulates plant-microbe interactions by ethylene inhibition. Biotechnol Adv. 2006; 24:382–8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biotechadv.2006.01.004
- Nascimento FX, Rossi MJ, Glick BR. Ethylene and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) in plant–bacterial interactions. Front Plant Sci. 2018; 9:1–17. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2018.00114
- Yasuta T, Satoh S, Minamisawa K. New assay for rhizobitoxine based on inhibition of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1999; 65(2):849–52. https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.65.2.849-852.1999
- Duodu S, Bhuvaneswari TV, Stokkermans TJW, Peters NK. A positive role for rhizobitoxine in Rhizobium-legume symbiosis. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 1999; 12(12):1082–9. https://doi.org/10.1094/MPMI.19188.8.131.522
- Okazaki S, Nukui N, Sugawara M, Minamisawa K. Rhizobial strategies to enhance symbiotic interactions: rhizobitoxine and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase. Microb Environ. 2004; 19:99–111. https://doi.org/10.1264/jsme2.19.99
- Ratcliff WC, Denison RF. Rhizobitoxine producers gain more poly-3-hydroxybutyrate in symbiosis than do competing rhizobia, but reduce plant growth. ISME J. 2009; 3:870–2. https://doi.org/10.1038/ismej.2009.38
- Salazar C, Hernandes G, Pino MT. Plant water stress: assotiations between ethylene and abscidic acid response. Chilean J Agric Res. 2015; 75(1):71‒79. https://doi.org/10.4067/S0718-58392015000300008