Mikrobiol. Z. 2020; 82(4):13-22.
Hexachlorobenzene Effect on Microbiocenoses of Different Soil Types
M.I. Dimova, N.A. Yamborko, G.O. Iutynska
Zabolotny Institute of Microbiology and Virology, NAS of Ukraine
154 Akad. Zabolotny Str., Kyiv, 03143, Ukraine
Cyclic organochlorine compounds, including hexachlorobenzene (HCB) being among the most dangerous persistent organic pollutants, have accumulated in the environment due to their widespread use for chemical plant protection. The issue of different HCB contamination influence on soil microbial communities is relevant and insufficiently studied. The aim was to investigate the reaction of microbial communities to HCB contamination of chernozem, dark-kastanozem and sod-podzolic soils of Ukraine. Methods. Model laboratory experiments, microbiological (determination of the microbial quantity on agar nutrient media), chemical (adsorption method for the study of basal and substrate-induced respiration of soil microbiota), and statistical methods. Results. Contamination of chernozem, dark-kastanozem and sod-podzolic soils of Ukraine with HCB in doses from 10 to 10,000 maximum permissible concentrations adversely affected the microbial quantity of major ecological and trophic groups, among which the most sensitive were phosphate-mobilizing bacteria and streptomycetes. In contaminated soils, the structure of the microbiocenoses was disturbed, the general biological activity was reduced – the basal respiration rate by 28.5–62.7% and the substrate-induced by 2–3 times, the accumulation of microbial biomass decreased by 1.5–4.3 times. The HCB contamination caused the main impact on the dispersion of microbial quantity (by 61–95%), the influence of soil type was smaller (1–24%). Conclusions. Microbiocenoses of chernozem, dark-kastanozem, sod-podzolic soils in intensive land use systems are vulnerable to HCB contamination in doses from 10 to 10.000 maximum permissible concentrations. The most sensitive phosphate-mobilizing bacteria and streptomycetes can be used as indicators in monitoring of organochlorine contaminated soils. Under the action of pesticide loading, microbial respiration and accumulation of microbial biomass are suppressed. The negative reaction of microbial communities to HCB contamination indicates the need for remediation measures to recovery the microbiota and soil fertility.
Keywords: microbial communities, basal and substrate-induced respiration, microbial biomass, hexachlorobenzene, contamination.
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