Mikrobiol. Z. 2019; 81(4):29-41. Russian.
Autecology and Hydrolytic Activity of Terrestrial Ecosystems Microorganisms
from the Antarctic, Ecuador and Israel
Borzova N.V., Gudzenko O.V., Gladka G.V., Varbanets L.D., Tashyrev A.B.
Zabolotny Institute of Microbiology and Virology, NAS of Ukraine
154 Akad. Zabolotny Str., Kyiv, 03143, Ukraine
Regions with extreme environmental conditions can be considered as a system with unique biodiversity and potential. The aim was to determine resistance range to UV-irradiation, temperature and concentration of NaCl, the glycosidase and proteolytic activity of bacteria isolated from terrestrial ecosystems of Antarctica, Ecuador and Israel. Methods. The objects of study were 19 extremе-tolerant bacteria. UV-irradiation of bacteria was performed with a BUF-15 lamp (λ=254 nm) in the range of 37–1440 J/m2. The temperature range of growth was determined at a temperature of 1–42ºC, halotolerance – at NaCl concentration of 1–100 g/l. Enzymes activities were studied in the culture supernatant. To determine glycosidase activities, p-nitrophenyl substrates, galactomannan guar and soluble starch were used. Casein and elastin were used as substrates for the determination of proteolytic activity. Results. Antarctic pigmented microorganisms showed a higher resistance to UV than non-pigmented. Cultures from highland biotopes and saline soils were resistant to UV-doses of 400–1440 J/m2. Investigated strains mainly belonged to psychotolerant and moderately halophilic bacteria. Most of the strains showed α-amylase and/or β-mannanase activity. Two strains, 3271 and 3456, exhibited simultaneously four and five glycosidase activities respectively. Caseinolytic activity was observed in 17 cultures, elastase – in one. Conclusions. Ecophysiological characteristics of the studied cultures reflect their adaptation to extreme environmental conditions. Both pigmented and non-pigmented microorganisms were resistant to UV-radiation, most of them are psychrotolerant moderate halophiles with α-amylase, β-mannanase, caseinolytic and elastase activity.
Keywords: psychrotolerant bacteria, halophiles, UV-resistance, glycosidase, protease.
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