p>Mikrobiol. Z. 2019; 81(1):34-48. Ukrainian.
Bioconversion of Mixed Industrial Waste in Biosurfactants of Nocardia vaccinia IMB-7405
Pirog T.P.1,2, Gershtman А.Yu.1, Shevchuk T.A.2
1National University of Food Technologies
154 Akad. Zabolotny Str., Kyiv, 03143, Ukraine
2Zabolotny Institute of Microbiology and Virology, NAS of Ukraine
68 Volodymyrska Str., Kyiv, 01601, Ukraine
Aim. To determine the conditions of Nocardia vaccinii IMV B-7405 cultivation on mixture of crude glycerol (waste of biodiesel production) and frying sunflower oil, which provide the maximum parameters of surfactants synthesis. Methods. The surfactants concentration was determined by gravimetrically after extraction from the supernatant of the culture liquid with a modified mixture of Folch (chloroform−methanol−water (4:3:2), pH 4.0−4.5 with addition of 1N HCl). The optimal molar ratio of refined sunflower oil and purified glycerol concentrations in mixture was calculated theoretically according to the concept of «auxiliary substrate» of Babel. Results. Based on theoretical calculations of the energy requirements for N. vaccinii IMV B-7405 biomass production and the synthesis of surface-active trehalose mycolates on the energy-deficient substrate (glycerol), it was established that the molar ratio of refined sunflower oil and purified glycerol concentrations in mixture providing maximum surfactant synthesis should be 0.16:1. Experimental studies have shown that highest values of surfactant synthesis were observed when the molar ratios of these substrates concentrations was 0.14:1−0.19:1, which is as close as possible to the theoretically calculated one. The possibility of replacing purified glycerol and refined sunflower oil in mixture with biodiesel production waste and frying oil was established. At a molar ratio of frying oil and crude glycerol concentrations in mixture 0.078:1 (considering 50% of glycerol content in biodiesel production waste) and using inoculum grown on crude glycerol, the amount of synthesized surfactants was 5.1−5.4 g/l , which is 1.6−2.3 times higher in comparison with the cultivation of N. vaccinii IMV B-7405 on corresponding monosubstrates. Conclusions. The obtained results confirm the previous data on the advisability of using mixture of energetically unequal growth substrates to increase the synthesis of secondary metabolites and show that high efficiency of such mixed substrates can be achieved both with the correct choice of substrates and the correct determination of their concentrations molar ratio. The using frying sunflower oil and crude glycerol for production of microbial surfactants will solve several important problems simultaneously: reduce the cost of final product, utilize toxic industrial waste, and increase rentability of biodiesel production.
Keywords: Nocardia vaccinii IMV B-7405, surfactants, mixture of frying sunflower oil and crude glycerol, intensification of biosynthesis.
Full text (PDF, in Ukrainian)
- Sekhon Randhawa KK, Rahman PK. Rhamnolipid biosurfactants − past, present, and future scenario of global market. Front Microbiol. 2014; 5:454. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2014.00454
- Paulino BN, Pessôa MG, Mano MC, Molina G, Neri-Numa IA, Pastore GM. Current status in biotechnological production and applications of glycolipid biosurfactants. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2016; 100(24):10265−93. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00253-016-7980-z
- Parthipan P, Preetham E, Machuca LL, Rahman PK, Murugan K, Rajasekar A. Biosurfactant and degradative enzymes mediated crude oil degradation by bacterium Bacillus subtilis A1. Front Microbiol. 2017; 8:193. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2017.00193
- Chong H, Li Q. Microbial production of rhamnolipids: opportunities, challenges and strategies. Microb Cell Fact. 2017; 16(1):137. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12934-017-0753-2
- Pirog T, Sofilkanych A, Konon A, Shevchuk T, Ivanov S. Intensification of surfactants' synthesis by Rhodococcus erythropolis IMV Ac-5017, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus IMV B-7241 and Nocardia vaccinii K-8 on fried oil and glycerol containing medium. Food Bioprod Process. 2013; 91(2):149−57. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fbp.2013.01.001
- Pirog TP, Shulyakova MО, Shevchuk TA. [Mixed substrates in environment and biotechnological processes]. Biotechnologia acta. 2013; 6(6):28–44. https://doi.org/10.15407/biotech6.06.028
- Bommareddy RR, Sabra W, Zeng AP. Glucose‐mediated regulation of glycerol uptake in Rhodosporidium toruloides: insights through transcriptomic analysis on dual substrate fermentation. Eng Life Sci. 2017; 7(3):282−91. https://doi.org/10.1002/elsc.201600010
- Huong K, Mohd Yahya AR, Amirul AA. Pronounced synergistic influence of mixed substrate cultivation on single step copolymer P(3HB-co-4HB) biosynthesis with a wide range of 4HB monomer composition. J Chem Technol Biotechnol. 2014; (89):1023−129. https://doi.org/10.1002/jctb.4195
- Pirog T, Shevchuk T, Beregova K, Kudrya N. Intensification of surfactants synthesis under cultivation Nocardia vaccinii IMV B-7405 on a mixture of glucose and glycerol. Biotechnologia acta. 2015; 8(6):23−31.
- Pirog TP, Kudrya NV, Shevchuk TA, Beregova KA, Iutynska GO. [Bioconversion of crude glycerole and molasses mixture in biosurfactants of Nocardia vaccinii IMB B-7405]. Mikrobiol Z. 2015; 77(3):28−35. Russian. https://doi.org/10.15407/microbiolj77.03.028
- Bligh EG, Dyer WJ. A rapid method for total lipid extraction and purification. Can J Biochem Physiol. 1959; 37(8):911−7. https://doi.org/10.1139/o59-099
- Ratledge C. Biodegradation of oils, fats and fatty acids. In: Biochemistry of microbial degradation. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1994. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-011-1687-9_4
- Pirog T, Shevchuk T, Beregova K, Kudrya N. [Peculiarities of glucose and glycerol metabolism in Nocardia vaccinii IMB B-7405 − producer of biosurfactants]. Ukr Biochem J. 2015; 87 (2):66–75. Ukrainian.
- Babel W, Müller RH. Mixed substrates utilizationin microorganisms: biochemical aspects and energetics. J Gen Microbiol. 1985; 131 (1):39−45.
- Rosenberg E, Ron EZ. High- and low-molecular-mass microbial surfactants. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 1999; 52(2):154–62. https://doi.org/10.1007/s002530051502
- Valerio O, Horvath T, Ponda C, Misra M, Mohanty A. Improved utilization of crude glycerol from biodiesel industries: synthesis and characterization of sustainable biobased polyesters. Ind Crops Prod. 2015; 78:141−7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2015.10.019
- Dziegielewska E, Adamzak M. Free fatty acids and a high initial amount of biomass in the medium increase the synthesis of mannosylerythritol lipids by Pseudozyma Antarctica. Environ Biotechnol. 2013; 9(1):14–8.
- Joshi‐Navare K, Singh PK, Prabhune AA. New yeast isolate Pichia caribbica synthesizes xylolipid biosurfactant with enhanced functionality. Eur J Lipid Sci Technol. 2014; 116(8):1070−9. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejlt.201300363
- de Oliveira MR, Camilios-Neto D, Baldo C, Magri A, Celligoi MA.Biosynthesis and production of sophorolipids. Int J Sci Technol Res. 2014; 3(11):133–46.
- Elshafie AE, Joshi SJ, Al-Wahaibi YM, Al-Bemani AS, Al-Bahry SN, Al-Maq-bali D, Banat IM. Sophorolipids production by Candida bombicola ATCC 22214 and its potential application in microbial enhanced oil recovery. Front Microbiol. 2015; 6:1324. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2015.01324
- Kim YB, Yun HS, Kim EK. Enhanced sophorolipid production by feeding-ratecontrolled fed-batch culture. Bioresour Technol. 2009; 100(23):6028–32. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2009.06.053
- Wadekar SD, Kale SB, Lali AM, Bhowmick DN, Pratap AP. Utilization of sweetwater as a cost-effective carbon source for sophorolipids production by Starmerella bombicola ATCC 22214. Prep Biochem Biotechnol. 2012; 42(2):125−42. https://doi.org/10.1080/10826068.2011.577883
- Bajaj VK, Annapure US. Castor oil as secondary carbon source for production of sophorolipids using Starmerella bombicola NRRL Y-17069. J Oleo Sci. 2015; 64(3):315−23. https://doi.org/10.5650/jos.ess14214
- Dengle Pulate V, Bhagwat S, Prabhune A. Microbial oxidation of medium chain fatty alcohol in the synthesis of sophorolipids by Candida bombicola and its physicochemical characterization. J Surfact Deterg. 2013; 16(2):173–81. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11743-012-1378-4
- Ribeiro IA, Bronze MR, Castro MF, Ribeiro MH. Sophorolipids: improvement of the selective production by Starmerella bombicola through the design of nutritional requirements. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2013; 97(5):1875−87. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00253-012-4437-x
- Karpenko I, Midyana G, Karpenko O, Novikov V. Influence of food industry wastes as substrates on the yield of biosurfactants of the strain Pseudomonas sp. PS-17. Ecol Eng Environ Protec. 2016; VI:44−51.
- Rashad MM, Al-Kashef AS, Nooman MU, El-din-Mahmoud AE. Co-utilization of motor oil waste and sunflower oil cake on the production of new sophorolipids by Candida bombicola NRRL Y-17069. Res J Pharm Biol Chem Sci. 2014; 5(4):1515−28.
- Kang Z, Du L, Kang J, Wang Y, Wang Q, Liang Q, Qi Q. Production of succinate and polyhydroxyalkanoate from substrate mixture by metabolically engineered Escherichia coli. Bioresour Technol. 2011; 102(11):6600−4. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2011.03.070
- Leite GB, Abdelaziz AE, Hallenbeck PC. Algal biofuels: challenges and opportunities. Bioresour Technol. 2013; 145:134−41. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2013.02.007
- Feng X, Walker TH, Bridges WC, Thornton C, Gopalakrishnan K. Biomass and lipid production of Chlorella protothecoides under heterotrophic cultivation on a mixed waste substrate of brewer fermentation and crude glycerol. Bioresour Technol. 2014; 166:17−23. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2014.03.120
- Zhou Y, Nie K, Zhang X, Liu S, Wang M, Deng L, Wang F, Tan T. Production of fumaric acid from biodiesel-derived crude glycerol by Rhizopus arrhizus. Bioresour Technol. 2014; 163:48−53. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2014.04.021