Mikrobiol. Z. 2017; 79(1):100-113.
Autecology and Taxonomy of Bacteria Isolated from Extreme Environments
Tashyrev O., Romanovskaya V., Rokitko P., Tashyreva H., Prytula I.,
Suslova О., Govorukha V., Prekrasna Ie., Gladka G.
Zabolotny Institute of Microbiology and Virology, NAS of Ukraine
154 Akad. Zabolotny Str., Kyiv, 03143, Ukraine
The paper presents the fnal results of a fve-year research (2011–2015) conducted at the Extremophilic Microorganism Biology Department. Extremotolerant microorganisms were isolated from phytocenoses and soils of West Antarctic; subtropical soils (Israel), karst caves and soils of temperate regions (Ukraine, Bulgaria), silt of hypersaline lakes of Crimea (Ukraine) and the Dead Sea (Israel), highland areas of Andes (Ecuador). 10% of them were resistant to toxic metals, 1-сhloro-4-nitrobenzene, UV radiation, high salinity, as well as to low and high temperatures. A method of thermodynamic prognosis of microbial interaction with various toxic compounds was developed, providing a theoretical background for designing new environmental biotechnologies. It enabled to determine the conditions for microbial metabolism regulation that provide for complete degradation of synthetic organic compounds and food wastes as well as for production of energy carriers (H2, CH4, ethanol, solid fuel). The specifed approach resulted an isolation of a number of strains that were resistant to the most toxic metals (Hg2+, Cu2+, Ni2+, Fe3+, Fe2+, CrO42–) and performed a variety of interactions with metal compounds including mobilization and immobilization, dissolving and sedimentation. Biodiversity of microorganisms in West Antarctica was studied by means of standard microbiological methods as along with phylogenetic and metagenomic analysis. Pyrosequencing of 16S rDNA amplicons of microbial communities in the studied samples revealed representatives of 20 bacterial phyla. Microbiological methods identifed cultivable representatives of four phyla (Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes), which included 25 species. The paper presents the results of taxonomic and/or biotechnology studies of specialized groups of extremophiles: iron-reducing bacteria, hydrogen-producing bacteria and obligate methane-oxidizing bacteria.
Key words: extremophiles, Antarctica, the Dead Sea, Ecuador, resistance, toxic metals, UV radiation, 1-сhloro-4-nitrobenzene, phylogenetic and metagenomic analysis, environmental biotechnology, biohydrogen.
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