Mikrobiol. Z. 2017; 79(1):34-45.
doi: https://doi.org/10.15407/microbiolj79.01.034

The Relationship between Viruses and Plant Cells in Natural Ecosystems
and Some Approaches to Their Regulation

Kovalenko O.G., Shcherbatenko I.S., Kyrychenko A.M., Vasylev V.N.

Zabolotny Institute of Microbiology and Virology, NAS of Ukraine
154 Akad. Zabolotny Str., Kyiv, 03143, Ukraine

Viral diseases of plants cause considerable economic losses by lowering the harvest and deteriorating the production quality. To reduce the harm caused by viruses and to prevent their spreading, protective measures should be developed, including those that apply resistance genes, resistance inducers, and viral infection inhibitors.
The purpose of this article is to provide an up-to-date information on plant virology, mainly concerning virus-plant interactions and covering topics on biological and molecular characteristics of the most pathogenic viruses, viral host range, disease symptoms, and various antiviral defense strategies of host plants. We also attempted to highlight general characteristics and diagnostic methods for some plant viruses and to elucidate the virus-host interaction at the molecular level.
Economically important viruses, such as Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV), Beet necrotic yellow vein virus, Beet yellows virus, and Hosta virus X were investigated. Their genome sequences showed maximum identity with BYMV strains reported from Russia, Australia, and Argentina. The sequence data was submitted to NCBI, accession numbers: KT923790.1 for the soybean isolate and KT923791.1 for the bean isolate of BYMV. Using computational analysis, we frst show that subgenomic tobamovirus promoters contain 9-nucleotide motives similar to those of the pol III promoter in tRNA genes. The results obtained suggest an existence of similar transcription initiation signals in promoters of viruses and eukaryotes. Glycans, obtained from Basidiomycota mushrooms, can inhibit viral infections and activate non-specifc defense mechanisms in host plants at the gene or conformation levels. Some of them adsorb of virions, and thus an interaction between a virus and a cell is, probably, blocked resulting blocking of infection in general.
The study aims to promote economic and socially acceptable ways of protecting plants from viral diseases, as well as to improve the applicability of research in plant virus ecology for prediction and control of plant virus outbreaks.

Key words: plant viruses, biosensors, plant resistance inducers, conservative nucleotide sites, amplifcation, sequencing, phylogenetic analysis.

Full text (PDF, in English)

  1. Kyrychenko AM, Teleheieva TA, Kovalenko OH. [Molecular-genetic mechanisms of plant resistance to viruses]. Tsitol Genet. 2007; 41(2): 67–79. Ukrainian.
  2. Kyrychenko AM, Kovalenko OH. [Genetically programmed cell death: the basis of homeostasis and form of phytoimmunity response]. Tsitol Genet. 2010; 44(4): 70–81. Ukrainian.
  3. Kyrychenko AM, Kovalenko OH. [Genetic bases and functioning of plant signal transduction at virus resistance]. Tsitol Genet. 2011; 45(4): 55–66. Ukrainian.
  4. Kyrychenko AM, Kraeva GV, Kovalenko OG. Biological characteristic and identifcation of soybean virus isolated from different Ukraine regions. Mikrobiol Z. 2012; 74(1): 46–51.
  5. Kyrychenko AM. [Influence of bean yellow mosaic virus on metabolism of photosynthetic pigments, proteins and carbohydrates in Glycine soja L]. Mikrobiol Z. 2014; 76(1): 47–52. Ukrainian.
  6. Kyrychenko A, Antipov I, Grynchuk K. [Characteristics of bean yellow mosaic virus isolates from agrocenoses of Ukraine]. Agroek Zh. 2015; 4: 113–120. Ukrainian.
  7. Kyrychenko AM, Kovalenko OH, Kraeva GV. Purifcation of bean yellow mosaic virus (technical guidelines) – Kyiv, 2016.
  8. Hrynchuk KV, Antipov IA., Parii MF, Kyrychenko AM. [Phylogenetic analysis of Ukrainian isolate of beet necrotic yellow vein virus]. Mikrobiol Z. 2016; 78(2): 102–108. Ukrainian.
  9. Andrusyk IM, Antipov IO, Kyrychenko AM. [PCR diagnosis and identifcation of sugar beet yellow virus]. Visnik sums’kogo nacional’nogo agrarnogo universitetu. 2013; 11(26): 42–46. Ukrainian.
  10. Kyrychenko AM, Kovalenko OH.  [Detection and identifcation of viruses affecting Hosta plants in Ukraine]. Agroek Zh. 2014; 1: 92 –97. Ukrainian.
  11. Kyrychenko A, Antipov I, Grynchuk K. Molecular variability of bean yellow mosaic virus isolates in Ukraine. Microbiological aspects of optimizing the production process of cultured crops: Proceedings of the international scientifc and practical internet conference; 2015 June15–18; Chernihiv: 2015. p. 30–31.
  12. Kyrychenko A, Antipov I, Grynchuk K. Ukrainian BYMV isolates: various pathogenicity, the same nucleotide sequences of coat protein region.: Abstracts book II International Scientifc Conference «Microbiology and Immunology – the development outlook in the 21st century». 2016 April 14–15; Kyiv: 2016. p. 87.
  13. Shcherbatenko IS. Graphical visualization of the biologically signifcant segments in the sequence sets of the relative plant viruses. Microbiol Z. 2012; 74(5): 108–15.
  14. Kyrychenko AN, Shcherbatenko IS. [Concervative nucleotide sites in tobamoviral subgenomic RNA promoters]. Microbiol Z. 2006; 68(3): 63–71. Ukrainian.
  15. Gordejchyk OI, Oleshchenko LT, Shcherbatenko IS. [Similar nucleotide blocks in tobamoviral subgenomic promoters]. Microbiol Z. 2007; 69(1): 42–51. Ukrainian.
  16. Osman T, Hemenway C, Buck K. Role of the 3’ tRNA-like structure in tobacco mosaic virus minus-strand RNA synthesis by the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase in vitro. J Virol. 2000; 74(24): 11671–80. https://doi.org/10.1128/JVI.74.24.11671-11680.2000
  17. Gordeyeichik OI, Shcherbatenko IS. Searching for similar nucleotide sites in genomic sequences of plant viruses. Bulletin of Taras Shevchenko’ Kyiv National University. 2008; 51: 47–50.
  18. Gordeychik OI, Shcherbatenko IS. [Searching for similar nucleotide sites in genomic sequences of plant viruses]. Microbiol Z. 2009; 71(4): 63–70. Ukrainian.
  19. Kyrychenko AN, Gordeychik OI, Shcherbatenko IS. [Codon bias and nucleotide substitutions in soybean dwarf virus]. Microbiol Z. 2012; 74(3): 90–7. Ukrainian.
  20. Gordejchyk OI, Shcherbatenko IS. [Context sequences of translation initiation codon in tobamo- and potexvirus genes]. Microbiol Z. 2010; 72(6): 39–46. Ukrainian.
  21. Gordejchyk OI, Shcherbatenko IS. [Contexts of the suppressive termination codons of translation in genes of positive-sense ssRNA plant viruses]. Microbiol Z. 2010; 72(6): 58–65. Ukrainian.
  22. Kyrychenko AN, Shcherbatenko IS. [Spontaneous nucleotide substitution in potato virus X genes]. Microbiol Z. 2012; 74(6): 71–9. Ukrainian.
  23. Kovalenko OG, Wasser SP. Glycans of higher Basidiomycetes mushrooms with antiphytoviral properties: isolation, characterization, and biological activity. In: Deshmukh S. K., et al. Fungi and their Applications  in the series of Progress in Mycological Research. Eds: Publisher: CRC Press / Taylor & Francis Group. LLC; 2013. p. 161–200.
  24. Kovalenko OG, Polishchuk OM, Wasser SP. Virus resistance induced by glucuronoxylomannan isolated from submerged cultivated yeast-like cell biomass of medicinal yellow brain mushroom  Tremella mesenterica Ritz.Fr. (Heterobasidiomycetes) in the hypersensitive host plants. Int J Med Mushrooms. 2009; 11(3): 199–205. https://doi.org/10.1615/IntJMedMushr.v11.i2.90
  25. Kovalenko OG, Polishchuk O, Wasser SP.  Glycans of higher basisdiomycetes mushroom Ganoderma adspersum (Schulzer) Donk: isolation and antyphytoviral activity. Biotechnologia. 2010; 3(5): 75–82. Ukrainian.
  26. Polishchuk O, Kovalenko O, Antipov I, Overchenko V. Inhibition of TMV infection by glucans of Ganoderma adspersum in isolated tobacco protoplasts. Bulletin of Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv. Series: Biology. 2012; 62: 69–72. Ukrainian.
  27. Podgorsky VS, Kovalenko OG, Boltovets PN, Snopok BA, Polishchuk EN. Formation of a complex of glucuronoxylomannan Tremella mesenterica Ritz. Fr. with tobacco mosaic virus as one of the possible mechanisms of polysaccharide’s antiviral activity. Reports of the NAS Ukraine. 2013; 12: 157–163. Ukrainian.
  28. Boltovets PM, Polischuk OM, Kovalenko OG, Snopok BA. A simple SPR-based method for the quantifcation of the effect of potential virus inhibitors. Analyst. 2013; 138: 480–86. https://doi.org/10.1039/C2AN35972C
  29. Boltovets PM, Kravchenko SO, Polischuk OM, Kovalenko OG, Snopok BA. Mixed organic-inorganic nanocomposites as potential virus inhibitors. FEBS EMBO 2014 Conference; 2014 30.08–4.09; Paris, France, FEBS Journal 281 (Suppl. 1) (2014), p. 412.
  30. Kravchenko SO, Boltovets PM, Polischuk OM, Kovalenko OG., Snopok BA. Preparation of Au-glycane nanocomposite for sensor applications. International research and practice conference”Nanotechnology and nanomaterials”, Aug. 27–30, 2014. – Lviv, Ukraine. – p. 203.
  31. Kovalenko OG. Principles and methodology of creation of means of healing and protection of plants against viral infections based bionanomaterials. Materials of XIII Congress of Vynograds’kyj Society of Microbiologists of Ukraine; 2013. Oct 1–6; Yalta, Ukraine: 2013. p. 55.
  32. Kovalenko OG, Kirichenko AM, Shepelevich VV, Karpenko OV, Vildanova-Martchyshin RI, et al. Complex preparations as means of plants recovery and protection against viral infections. Bulletin of Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv. Series: Biology. 2008; 51: 35–37.
  33. Коvalenko OG, Vasiliev VN, Karpenko EV. Application of surface-active rhamnolipids for formation of the supramolecular structures with antiviral activity. Internat. Summer school nanotechnology: from fundamental research to innovations and “Internat. research and practice conference “Nanotechnology and Nanomaterials” (NANO–2013). 2013. August 25– September 1, Bukovel. Ukraine. Book Abstr. 2013. p. 266.
  34. Kovalenko OG, Vasiliev VN, Karpenko EV. Supramolecular complecsis based on microbial surfactants as antiviral agents. 2th internat sci. conf. “Microbiology and Immunology – the development outlook 21st century. 2016. April 14–15. Kyiv. Ukraine. Abstracts book. p. 76.
  35. Kovalenko OG, Vasylev VM, Adamchuk-Chala NI, Tytova LV, Karpenko EV. Glicanglicolipidic complexes as components of bioformulation on the base of rhizospheric microorganisms. Microbiological aspects of optimizing the production process of cultured crops (June 16–18, 2015, Chernihiv): Proceedings: 2015; 49–50.